In this study, digital light processing (DLP) was used to achieve 3D-printed composite materials containing photosensitive resin blended with starch and hemp fibers. The synthesis of 3D-printed composites was performed without heating, according to various material combinations ranging from pure photosensitive resin to a mixture of three phases, including resin, starch, and hemp fibers, with the weight content for each reinforcing phase reaching up to a third of the formulation. The morphology, composition, and structure of the 3D-printed composites were assessed using infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry, X-ray diffraction, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, thermal behavior and mechanical performance were studied using calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and tensile testing combined with high-speed optical imaging. The results showed that the post-curing step is a leading factor for improving the mechanical performance of the 3D-printed composites. In addition, hemp fiber or starch did not alter the tensile strength. However, the largest reinforcing effect in terms of stiffness improvement was obtained with starch. Additionally, starchy composites demonstrated the strongest dependence of heat capacity on operating temperature.